In flies, intestinal insulin appears to be the signal that makes stem cells ‘supersize the gut.’ ‘Because of the many similarities between your fruit fly and the human, the discovery might keep a key to understanding how human organs adapt to environmental change,’ stated David Bilder, UC-Berkeley associate professor of molecular and cell biology. The extensive research will be published in the Oct. 28 problem of the journal Cell. Stem cells crucial to adaptability Many cells grow or shrink with utilization, including muscle, liver and intestine.The rate of recurrence of mutations in GNA11 at the codon encoding Q209 increased progressively from blue nevi to primary uveal melanomas to uveal melanoma metastases , a pattern inverse to the distribution of Q209 mutations in GNAQ, which are most typical in blue nevi and least common in uveal melanoma metastases .4 percent). These mutations predicted substitution by leucine in 97.3 percent of samples which were analyzed and by proline in 2.7 percent of the samples . We also discovered mutations in GNA11 and GNAQ in exon 4 at arginine 183, that is analogous to R201 in GNAS and R179 in GNAI2 .21 Mutations affecting R183 in either GNA11 or GNAQ were within 2.1 percent of blue nevi and 4.8 percent of primary uveal melanomas.