Common variable immunodeficiency is a prototypic antibody-deficiency disorder, which is connected with autoimmunity also. Although CVID was present in only three subjects in our study, there is substantial phenotypic overlap between CVID and PLAID. Furthermore to antibody autoimmunity and insufficiency, common features of the two disorders include granulomatous disease,12 diminished class-switched memory space B cells,17 impaired B-cell calcium flux,34 and low numbers of natural killer cells.35 Like PLAID, CVID is associated with mutations that affect proteins involved in B-cell activation.36-40 Given the overlap of phenotypes and pathways between the two diseases, it seems likely an understanding of PLAID provides mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of CVID and CVID-associated symptoms.By evaluating before – and after-treatment warmth maps of patients, physicians can objectively evaluate wrinkle reduction and such additional variables such as optimal dosage for obtaining maximum aesthetic benefit. There is a growing body of evidence that injectable fillers for both cosmetic and reconstructive reasons can have significant psychological benefits, said senior author Ivona Percec, MD, PhD, director of Basic Science Study and associate director of PLASTIC SURGERY in the division of COSMETIC SURGERY at Penn. With more people turning to this procedure, it is necessary to have evidence-based means of improving reconstructive and aesthetic surgical results. Current tries at measuring wrinkle reduction rely on static photographs and subjective visual assessments mostly. Injectable fillers get rid of or reduce lines and wrinkles by comforting the muscles in charge of their development.