African-Americans without private health insurance less likely to receive kidney transplants African-Americans and individuals without private health insurance are not as likely than others to get a kidney transplant before requiring dialysis, according to a study appearing within an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Culture of Nephrology . The findings indicate that attempts are needed to make certain the equitable distribution of donor kidneys and the timing of transplantation. While kidney transplantation may be the best available therapy for kidney failing, demand for donor kidneys far exceeds the source.Signaling pathways involve molecules in a cell that control cell functions – – such as cell division – – by cooperation. For example, the first molecule in the process receives a signal to begin. It tells another molecule to work then, and so on. Treatment of breast cancer differs by patient because of differences in tumors. Some tumors contain protein receptors that are activated by the hormones progesterone or estrogen. Others respond to another protein called human epidermal development aspect receptor 2, or HER2. Each of these is treated in a different way. A triple-negative breast cancer does not have any of these proteins receptors and is typically aggressive. There is an urgent and ongoing need for the development of novel therapies which effectively target triple-negative breasts cancers, Meyers said.